1. In Greece it is known as phyllo, or as in the UK, filo. The word ajeen may also be used to describe all dough and pastries.
2. Also known as darseen or Chinese cassia, it is usually bought as thick chunks of bark and used as a substitute for cinnamon.
3. A gosh feel is a popular Afghanistan dish, also referred to as an elephant's ear pastry. It is a deep-fried dough, flavoured with cardamom and sprinkled with chopped nuts.
4. This is a versatile syrup and is used for all four: (a) with cucumber and soda, (b) with soda, ice and mint sprigs, (c) somewhat strangely, with romaine, and (d) with romaine and bread.
5. The term za'tar is also used to describe a mixture of powdered herbs which usually includes thyme, sumac and marjoram. This may be sprinkled on oiled flat bread before cooking.
6. These are both cooking dishes containing a main meal. They are dropped off at the bakery, where they are cooked in the oven and collected later.
7. (a) These are all cooked separately and then tossed together with a garlic sauce and tomato purée. Often served with salad or grilled fish.
8. Qahwi is coffee in Lebanon where it may be prepared with these flavourings. Mazboutah means medium sweet and hilweh is very sweet.
9. Islam makes no mention of restricting beer or spirits. Originally the mussels were passed through flour and then dipped in beer; most recipes now advocate the use of a beer batter.
10. Often mixed with a syrup and known as dibs, it may be added to tahini and used as a spread. It is chocolate-flavoured, but has less fat than the real thing.
11. The kuku is an omelette, originally cooked on top of the stove but now often baked in the oven. Cut into squares, it is popularly served with yogurt and bread.
12. These are dried limes, used as a spice in recipes and rubbed on to grilled meat. They are blended to a powder or used whole with incisions made in the skin.
13. Cumin is a herb native to Egypt. The aromatic spice nigella sativa, known as black cumin, has no relationship with its namesake.
14. Also the basis for grenadine, the fruit, kept till fully ripe, is the pomegranate.
15. This was intended for the guest to wipe his mouth after taking a drink.