1. Royale is a savoury egg custard which should be cut into diamonds or squares. Syneresis, when water shows in the custard, is normally caused by overcooking.
2. The spinach should be a purée, mixed with cream, domed and fluted or scrolled with a knife, then cordoned with cream. The croñtons should be around the edge, cut in small triangles.
3. The grilling process rapidly seals the surface of the food. The items may be placed over heat as with a barbecue, under heat as with a salamander, or between heat.
4. The original oranges in both China and the Mediterranean were the bitter variety. They were not normally used for eating, but added to dishes to provide a distinctive, bitter, flowery taste.
5. It is often eaten plain, but as saganaki it is floured, fried in olive oil and served with a squeeze of lemon.
6. This is an alternative to puff pastry, mainly due to its layered appearance. Normally, it is used for cream horns or sausage rolls.
7. This coarse beer is made from rye bread. The technique is of Eastern origin but is occasionally also the basis of a US home brew.
8. This method produces a minced effect, as food is cut into very small pieces. Two cleavers are often used, one in each hand, moved rhythmically in a drumming motion.
9. The main ingredient is quail. They are trapped in nets as their migration flight, twice a year, takes them through mountain passes.
10. Cayenne pepper is made in this way. The berries are ground to a powder, made into flat cakes, baked and then ground back down. This red pepper, unlike the sweet paprika, is hot.
11. First chop the nuts and then press them through a garlic press. Seven nuts should produce the required amount.
12. Cultivation began with the Jesuits. The best grades resemble the famous Blue Mountain coffee and are sometimes used to extend it.
13. Quite the reverse, this is one of the oldest US drinks and it originated in this city. It contains rum, brandy and peach liqueur.
14. In 1980, the total production of this cheese, Blue Stilton, was 6,000 tons. It has a wide range of flavour and texture.
15. Traditionally, the rice and meat are layered in a pan which will be sealed before steaming. Garnish with fried cashew nuts and fried onion.