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Culinary Dictionary

### A
**abaisser** roll out with a rolling pin **aceto vinegar** (Italian), eg Balsamico **achar** Indian pickle **agrodolce** sweet and sour **aiguillette** strips of meat or poultry **aïoli** garlic mayonnaise from Provence **ajo blanco** purée sauce of garlic and almonds(Spanish) **al dente** cooked until firm and crunchy(pasta/vegetables) **alloro** bay leaf (Italian) **allumette** cut into matchstick shapes **allumettes** matchstick shapes, e.g. baked puffpastry strips with a sweet or savoury filling or garnish **amaretti** macaroons (Italian) **amuse-bouche** small savoury snacks serve pre-horsd’oeuvres **anchoide** Provencal paste-sauce of garlic, anchovyand olive oil **anguille** eel **antipasti** starters (Italian) **arborio rice** short-fat-grained Italian rice usedfor risotto **arroser** to baste **arrosto** roast **arugula** salad leaf similar to rocket **aspic** clear jelly made from meat stock andgelatine **assiette anglaise** platter of cooked meats **assiette** platter **au gratin** topped with breadcrumbs and grated cheeseand browned under the grill **au jus** text **au sec** until dry **abaisser** roll out with a rolling pin **anguille** eel **arroser** to baste
### B
**babaganoush** aubergine purée (Middle Eastern mezedish) **bain-marie** a hot-water bath for cooking at a slow,even heat **baklava** Turkish and Greek sweet made from filopastry **ballotine** meat, fish or poultry, boned, stuffed orrolled **bard** to cover feathered game and poultry with astrip of pork fat **basmati** aromatic long-grained rice **baste** to spoon over liquid during cooking **baton** stick-shaped **bavarois** Bavarian cream – a sweet custardmade with eggs, cream and gelatine and served cold **béarnaise** tarragon-flavoured butter emulsionsauce **beaum** measure used for sugar boiling **béchamel** roux-based white sauce **beignets** deep-fried fritters or doughnuts **belacan** South-east Asian fermented shrimp paste **bercy** a white wine-based sauce for fish **beurre blanc** light emulsion sauce of white wine,vinegar, shallots and butter **beurre noisette** butter cooked until light brown **bhaji** vegetable fried in batter (Indian) **biryani** oven-baked rice with meats **bisque** thickened shellfish puree soup, usually withtomato and cognac **blanc** flour mixed with water for simmeringvegetables such as salsify **blanch** to cook food briefly in boiling water **blanquette** white stew of lamb, veal or white fishthickened with egg yolks and cream **blini** leavened buckwheat flour pancake **bollito misto** mixture of boiled meats **bonito** flaked dried tuna used to make Japanesebroths **bonne femme** mushroom garnish for fish, with onionsand bacon for chicken **bonne-bouche** small savoury bite often in avol-au-vent case **borlotti** dry speckled haricot bean **bouchées** small sweet or savoury puff pastrybites **boudin** black pudding **bouillabaisse** fish stew from Marseilles **bouillon** unclarified meat or vegetable stock **bouquet garni** bundle of herbs such as parsley,thyme, bay leaf, used to flavour stews and casseroles **bourride** a garlic fish stew from Provence **brandade** purée of cod, olive oil, shallots andgarlic **brasato** braised beef **bresaola** cured fillet of beef **brik** thin sheets of filo-like pastry **brioche** rich yeast bread enriched with butter andeggs **brochette** wooden or bamboo skewer **brodo** stock (Italian) **broyer** to crush or grind finely **brunoise** finely diced mixed vegetables used as abase for soups and sauces or garnish **bruschetta** grilled bread **bulgur** part-cooked cracked wheat
### C
**calamari** squid **canapé** small piece of food served hot or cold as anappetiser **cannellini beans** white kidney beans **cannoli** Sicilian pastry tubes filled with ricottacheese, chocolate and candied peel **capsicum** bell pepper **caramelise** to slowly brown sugar or foods such asonions and carrots over heat **carbonara** spaghetti sauce of egg, bacon andparmesan **carbonnade** beef braised in beer **carciofo** globe artichoke **carpaccio** originally thin slices of raw red meat,now also applied to fish **chantilly** whipped cream with sugar and vanilla **charcuterie** cooked and cured pork products, iehams, bacon, pâtés **chard** spinach-like leaves with thick, white edibleribs **charlotte** moulded dessert of pastry cream, custard,mousse or puréed fruit **charsiu** Chinese glazed pork fillet **chartreuse** herb-flavoured, brandy-based liqueur **chartreuse, en** feathered game served withcabbage **chemiser** to line a mould **chermoula** Moroccan fish marinade **chervil** green-leafed herb with a hint of aniseedflavour **chèvre** (fromage de ~) goat’s milk cheese **chiffonade of leaf vegetables:** cut into fineshreds **chine** backbone of beef, lamb, pork or venison withmeat attached **Chingkiang** vinegar dark vinegar similar to balsamic(Chinese) **chinois conical** strainer **chioca** yams **choisum** Chinese greens with yellow flowers **chorizo** spicy sausage of pork meat and fatflavoured with garlic and spices/paprika **choucroute** sauerkraut **choux** pastry for sweet fillings **chowder** seafood stew-like soup **cilantro** coriander **civet** game stew **clafouti** baked batter tart, usually withcherries **clarified** removal of impurities from butter, stockor jelly **cloud ears** dried Chinese mushroom **cocotte** lidded earthenware cooking pot forslow-cooking meat **compote** fruit poached in syrup **concassé** roughly chopped **confit** preserved meat (goose, duck, pork) cookedslowly and preserved in its own fat **consommé** clear, concentrated meat, fish or poultrystock **coque, à la** cooked in its shell, eg eggs **coquilles Saint-Jacques** scallops **coral** roe or eggs of some shellfish **cotechino** pork sausage **coulis** purée of fruit or vegetables **court bouillon** seasoned poaching liquid, usuallyfor fish **couverture** confectioner’s chocolate high in cocoabutter, used for coating and ornamental work **crème anglaise** custard sauce **crème pâtissière** custard or pastry cream, thickenedwith flour or starch **crêpe** thin pancake with sweet or savouryfilling **crépine** pork caul **crevettes** shrimp **cromesquis** croquette **cross-contamination** transfer of bacteria to foodfrom another food, equipment or work surface **crostini** bread canapés **croustade** edible casing of puff pastry orhollowed-out bread containing savoury foods, eg stew **croûte** bread or pastry crust
### D
**dacquoise** layers of meringue withwhipped cream or buttercream and fresh berries **daikon** large white radish **dariole** small cylindrical mould and sweet orsavoury items baked in it **dashi** Japanese stock made from bonito flakes andkonbu seaweed (dulse) **dauphinoise** sliced potatoes baked in cream,seasoned with nutmeg and garlic **deglaze** dissolve caramelised sediment in a roastingpan by adding wine or stock **dégorger** to soak fish or sometimes vegetables toremove impurities **délice** used to describe delicate pieces of sweetand savoury foods **demi-tasse** half-cup (espresso coffee cup) **dépouiller** to remove skin or scum formed on top ofliquid **dhal** split peas or pulses cooked to a grueltexture **dim sum** small Chinese snacks **donburi** Japanese dish of a bowl of rice topped withleftovers **dubarry** garnished with or containingcauliflower **dum** Indian steaming method especially for pilau **duxelles** finely chopped mushrooms and shallots,sweated in butter and used as a stuffing, flavouring or garnish
### E
**elver** young eel **emulsion** mixture of mutually insoluble liquids inwhich one is suspended in another **en cocotte** cooked in a small round dish (used forpot-roasting) **en daube** originally applied to meats cooked in aProvencal stewing pot (daubière) now applied to meat stews **en papillotte** fish or meat baked in parchmentpaper **endive** plant used raw in salad or braised as avegetable **entrée** savoury dish served as a main course **escalope** thin slice of meat or fish
### F
**falafel** dried broad bean rissoles **faraona** guinea fowl (Italian) **farce** stuffing or forcemeat **fenugreek** plant of which the seeds are ground andused as a spice in curries and chutneys **feuillantine** puff pastry strips brushed with egg,sprinkled with sugar and baked **feuilletage** puff pastry **fèves** broad beans **flageolet** small, pale-green kidney bean **flambé** foods served or prepared by pouring overalcohol and igniting **focaccia** flat, round, flavoured Italian bread **foie gras** enlarged liver of force-fed duck orgoose **forestière** garnished with mushrooms **fricassée** white meat or poultry casserole **frittata** flat, unfolded omelette **fruits de mer** assorted seafood, usuallyshellfish **fumée** smoked **funghi** wild mushrooms (Italian) **fusil** sharpening steel
### G
**gailan** spring greens (Chinese) **galangal** root from the ginger family, used in Thaicuisine **galette** flat, round, sweet or savoury cake orbiscuit **ganache** cake topping or filling made fromcouverture (qv) and cream **gastrique** caramelised sugar and vinegar mixtureused to flavour sauces **gazpacho** cold thick broth of tomatoes, garlic,onion etc **gelato** ice cream (Italian) **ghee** clarified butter **girolles** similar to chanterelles (qv) but usuallypicked smaller **glacé** iced or glazed **gnocchi** small Italian dumplings cooked in boilingwater and served with sauce **gosht** meat (Indian) **gougère** ring of choux pastry with savoury filling,often cheese **goulash** meat stew with paprika **grana** grating cheese **gratin** sweet or savoury dish that is browned undera grill **gravadlax** same as gravlax **gravlax** raw salmon cured in sugar, salt, pepper anddill **gremolata** mixture of parsley, garlic and lemonzest, used to garnish osso bucco **griottines** morello cherries, usually preserved inalcohol **gurnard** small, round sea fish
### H
**HACCP** Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, afood safety self inspection system **halloumi** goats’ milk cheese **harissa** medium-hot chilli paste used in Moroccancooking **harusame** transparent, rice-flour noodles **hoisin** sauce made from soy, flour, vinegar, garlic,sesame, salt and pepper **homard** lobster **homardine** white wine sauce finished with lobsterbutter and garnished with diced lobster
### I
**infuse** to soak ingredient, eg herbs’ in liquid toimpart flavour **insalata** salad
### J
**jaggery** unrefined sugar **jalousie** baked pastry tart topped with latticedpastry strips **jambonette** ham and pork sausage-like dish **jambonneau** small leg – applied to poultry **joue** beef or pork cheek **julienne** food, particularly vegetables, cut intothin strips **jus** juice extracted from roasted meats
### K
**kebab** skewered meat **ketjap** manis thick, sweetened soy sauce **khao niao** Thai glutinous rice **khoresh** meat stew with fruit and nuts **khoshaf** macerated dried fruit salad containingapricots, raisins and almonds **konafa** Turkish pastry which resembles shreddedwheat **korma** north Indian spiced meat stew **kulebyaka** Russian salmon and rice pie **kulfi** Indian ice cream made from reduced milk **kway teow** Malaysian flat noodles
### L
**laifen** Chinese tubular noodles **laksa** Malay soup with noodles and seafood **lardons** strips of streaky bacon **levin** starter dough made from live yeast andflour **linguine** thin, flat pasta noodle **lyonnaise sauce** sauce of chopped onions sautéd inbutter with white wine and vinegar
### M
**mace** outer covering of nutmeg **macerate** to soften fruit by soaking in liquid **magret** boneless breast of the moulard duck **mancha** powdered green tea **mandolin** manual vegetable slicer **mantecato** the action of beating butter and Parmesaninto risotto **marbling** fat deposited within muscle tissue **marinade** seasoned liquid for flavouring andtenderising raw meat, game, poultry and fish **marinate** to put meat, fish etc in a marinade(qv) **marmite** stockpot **marquis**e usually a ganache (qv) – based chocolatedessert **Marsala** fortified wine from Sicily **masala** Indian spice mix, eg garam masala **matelote** French freshwater fish stew made with redor white wine **medallion** small round cut of meat **membrillo** quince paste **mesquite** tree from America, the wood of which isused for barbecuing **meunière, à la** lightly floured food cooked inbutter and served with butter and lemon **mignonette** coarsely crushed peppercorns **millefeuille** layers of puff pastry alternated withsweet or savoury fillings **millet** a grain native to Africa and Asia **mirepoix** diced vegetables (usually carrot, onion,celery) and often ham or bacon, used to flavour sauces, stocks andsoups **mirin** sweet Japanese rice wine **mise en place** preparation of food or small items ofequipment **miso** fermented soya bean paste **mitsuba** Japanese green leaf used as a herb **mizuna** peppery-flavoured salad leaf **moelle** beef marrow **monté** to enrich by incorporating butter, egg yolks,cream **mousseline** a light fish or meat mousse **murgh** chicken (Indian) **mushimono** steaming (Japanese)
### N
**nage, à la** cooked in a court bouillon **nam pla** Thai fish sauce **nam prik** Thai chilli sauce **Nantua** crayfish sauce **napper** to lightly coat in sauce **navarin** lamb or mutton stew with onions andpotatoes **nimono** simmering technique (Japanese) **noisette** small cut of meat from the rib, usuallylamb **nori** thin, black seaweed sheets used for wrappingsushi
### O
**offal** organs or trimmings of meat including brains,heart, liver, kidneys, sweetbread, tail, tongue and tripe **OO** grade of pasta flour **ossobuco** chopped veal knuckle braised with onions,garlic, carrot, celery and tomato **oyster sauce** brown sauce used in Chinesecuisine
### P
**pak choi** Chinese white cabbage **pakora** deep-dried vegetable fritter (Indian) **pancetta** streaky bacon **paneer** fresh milk curds used in Indian cookery **paner** to coat with egg and breadcrumbs **panna cotta** cooked-cream Italian dessert similar tobavarois (qv) **papillote** paper wrapping to contain aroma andflavour when cooking meat or fish **pappardelle** long-flat egg noodles with a crimpededge **parboil** partially cook in boiling liquid **parfait** enriched ice-cream made from a sugar, eggyolk and double cream base **passato** puréed and sieved or strained **pastilla (bastilla)** traditional Moroccan dish ofpigeon pie in egg, lemon and onion sauce sweetened with almonds inpastry layers covered… **paupiette** thin slice of meat or fish wrapping asavoury stuffing **pavé** square sponge cake layered with butter-cream;mousse or pâté prepared in a square mould **pavlova** meringue and cornflour dessert topped withwhipped cream and fruit **pecorino** ewes’ milk cheese **peperonata** pepper and vegetable stew **persillade** chopped parsley spiked with crushedgarlic **piatto** plate or dish (Italian) **piccata** escalope **pieds de mouton** sheeps’ trotters; a wildmushroom **pilaf** Turkish dish of long grain-rice simmered inflavoured liquid of Indian pilau **pimento** large, sweet red pepper **pimenton** Spanish paprika **pirozhki** small savoury pastries **plancha, à la** grilled on a griddle **polenta** maize flour **pont-neuf** puff pastry filled with frangipane creamand macaroons **pot-au-feu** French dish of meat and vegetablescooked in stock – the broth is eaten first followed by the meatand vegetables as a… **poussin** young chicken **praline** almonds caramelised in sugar, crushed andadded to confections **provençal** sauce of tomatoes, onions and garlicsautéd in olive oil
### Q
**quenelle** light dumplings formed into smallovals
### R
**râble** saddle, usually hare **ragoût** thick, rich stew **ragu** meat sauce for pasta **raita** yogurt-based side dish (Indian) **rapini** member of the broccoli family with bitterassertive flavour **ras-el-hanout** Moroccan spice mix for tagines **ratatouille** Provencal vegetable stew of dicedaubergine, tomato, courgettes, green peppers, onions and garlic cookedin olive oil **ravioli** small, filled pasta squares **réchauffée** reheated dish made with previouslycooked ingredients **reduce** decrease quantity by simmering toconcentrate flavours **rémoulade** sauce of mayonnaise combined withmustard, gherkins, parsley, capers, chervil and tarragon **rillettes** shredded pork cooked in its own fat,mixed until smooth and potted **ripieno** stuffing (Italian) **romesco** Catalonian sauce of tomato, almond, sherry,garlic and paprika **rosti** grated and fried potatoes **roulade** rolled slice of meat with savoury stuffing;rolled and filled sponge cake **roux** mix of flour and butter cooked together slowlyand used to thicken soups and sauces
### S
**sabayon** egg yolks and wine whisked over simmeringwater until thick and frothy **sablé** French shortbread **sachertorte** rich chocolate cake, coated in ganachewith apricot jam **salé** salted, pickled (French) **salmis** dark game ragoût **salsa** Italian and Spanish for sauce **salsify** root vegetable with oyster-like flavour **samosa** deep-fried meat or vegetable patty **sansho** prickly ash powder sprinkled on grilledmeat **sashimi** sliced raw fish **sauce** gribiche sauce of mayonnaise, capers,gherkins, herbs and hard-boiled egg whites **sauté** to cook quickly in hot fat or oil **savarin** yeast cake baked in a ring mould, soaked inrum and served with crème pâtissière and fruit **scampi** Italian for Norway lobster, aka langoustine,aka Dublin Bay prawn **score** to make parallel cuts on surface of food **sepia** cuttlefish **sfoglia** hand-made pasta **shaoxing** amber-coloured rice wine **shiitake** dark-brown Japanese mushroom with anearthy flavour **short (of pastry)** having a high fat content **Sichuan peppercorns** fragrant Chinese seasoning froma plant unrelated to pepper **skorthalia** Greek garlic sauce **slake** mix flour into thin paste with a smallquantity of water **soba** buckwheat noodle **soffritto** a sauce/stew base of fried dicedvegetables and sometimes pancetta **sorbet** water ice, usually fruit, but can be wine,chocolate, etc **soufflé** sweet or savoury baked pudding made withwhipped egg whites **spatchcock** small whole birds split down thebackbone and flattened for grilling **star anise** star-shaped, aniseed-flavoured seed **stockfish** dried salt cod **sumac** Middle-Eastern spice related to the cashewnut **supreme** fillet taken from poultry or feathered gamebreast **sushi** Japanese vinegared rice
### T
**tabbouleh** salad of bulgur wheat mixed withtomatoes, onion, lemon juice, mint and parsley **tagliolini** thin Italian noodles **tahina** crushed sesame-seed paste **tamarind** spice from fruit of native Indian tree **tamis** sieve **tandoor** Indian clay oven **tapenade** paste of capers, black olives, anchovies,garlic and often tuna **tarka** Indian method of tempering spices in hotoil **tarte tatin** French apple tart baked upside-down **tartufo** truffle (Italian) **tempura** seafood and vegetables dipped in batter anddeep-fried **teriyaki** meat or fish marinated in mirin andsoy **terrine** mixture of meat, fish or vegetables andseasonings in a lined dish **tian** shallow gratin of chopped vegetables **tikka** marinated pieces of meat or fish (Indian) **timbale** food such as rice or vegetables pressedinto a single-portion mould **tofu** soya-bean curd **torte** German for round cake or flan **tostada** Spanish for toast **tournedos** round cut of beef fillet **tranche** slice **trenette** long, flat pasta; another name forlinguine **trevisse (treviso)** red chicory **trifolato** a method for sautéing vegetables in oil,garlic and parsley **truffe** truffle **truffle** Edible body of an underground fungus. Maybe used to flavour sauces etc, eaten raw in salads or used as agarnish **tuile** crisp biscuit, traditionally with almond
### U
**udon** white Japanese wheat noodles **univalve** mollusc with a shell consisting of onevalve, eg. snails, clams
### V
**vacherin** basket made of meringue rings filled withcream **velouté** French sauce made withwhite stock and thickened with roux **verjuice** sour grape or crab applejuice used in place of vinegar **vermicelli** thin pasta noodles oftenused in soups **viennoiserie** yeast dough bakeryproducts **vierge** whipped butter seasoned withsalt, pepper and lemon juice and served withvegetables
### W
**wakame** Japanese seaweed **wasabi** Japanese horseradish, greenpaste or powder used as a condiment **won ton** wrappers of Chinese noodlepaste similar to ravioli
### Y
**yuzu** kind of Japanese citrusfruit
### Z
**zahtar** Lebanese seasoning of thyme,salt and sometimessumac
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