Delegates attending the coffee seminar hosted by Chef Conference sponsor Lavazza were given a lesson in how to create the perfect Italian espresso by Andrea Fucci, the company's international training manager. Fucci advised them to make sure that:
1. The water inside a machine's boiler is 125ºC.
2. When the water hits the coffee it is between 90ºC and 95ºC.
3. The water pressure is 9atm.
4. The whole process does not take longer than 30 seconds.
Fucci also advised that a small, conical-shaped cup is best for espresso. Coffee can be poured smoothly down into its base, emulsifying in the process and creating a cap of suspended "crema".